The hundreds of worker protests, the #MeToo push against sexual harassment and gender discrimination, the mobilization of church members to oppose the destruction of their meeting places and various gatherings to oppose government decisions on schools and land use and tens of thousands of other protests make it clear that Chinese citizens are far from docile, and regularly and vociferously rise up in collective protest. In some cases they have successfully applied pressure, forcing political and economic elites to satisfy their demands. In others, they have been brutally suppressed. More often than not, however, the results have been mixed. Examining how, when, and why individuals and groups have engaged in contentious acts, and how the targets of their complaints have responded, sheds light on the stability of China’s existing political system, and its likely future trajectory.